Kamis, 24 Februari 2011

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework
Before the research, in teaching speaking ability, English teacher of SMP IT AL ISLAM uses realia to teach her students and when doing the research, the writer uses monopoly game to teach students of SMP IT AL ISLAM. In this research, the writer assumes that may be a significant difference before and after doing the research.
Although in this research the writer uses three phases technique as like the teacher in teaching speaking but the writer assumes that students’ speaking ability may be better than before. Many reason can influence monopoly game may be better than realia. Firstly, realia is just the usual thing that is always seen by students in the classroom, so it is not a new thing that they could attract to be curious for seeing it. On the other hand, on the monopoly game many pictures that students may like to see. If they can answer the right question, they can buy the picture that they like. Secondly, in the usual teaching learning process, teacher does not ask students to keep working with their partners, but when using monopoly game, the writer divides the students in partner. They can keep working together to defeat the other player in this game.
In the third reason why monopoly game may improve students’ speaking ability because monopoly game forces the students to answer the questions directly, and it can be inserted the new material that students have known before. It is different with realia which is always seen by students, they might have known the name of that realia before. Fourth, by playing game students feel enjoy with the teaching learning process and the teacher is just as the monitor and facilitator of the teaching learning process. The assumption of the writer is if the students enjoy with the teaching learning process, they will input material easily without compulsively. Monopoly game also teaches the student to be independent because they try the new knowledge by playing game without using teacher’s instruction. It different by using realia, students may be bored with the usual learning process because they just hear what teacher explains in front of class. They can not be independent because they only do what the teacher asks to them.
In the last reason, monopoly game has some cards that help the teacher to draw or write the materials to be the challenge in this game, if there is any challenge, students may want to be a winner and defeat their enemy. It is more effective than realia that there is no complement helps the teacher to insert the materials because sometimes any material can not use realia as the media of teaching as like feeling, and thinking that can be expressed in a picture or a card.
In conclusion, the reasons above are the basic reasons why the writer assumes that monopoly game may be more effective than realia to improve the students’ speaking ability. So, there may be a significant difference between teaching speaking by using realia and monopoly game.

Contoh Background of the Study

This is the example of English Education Departement Skripsi


1.1 Background of the Research
Language as a tool of communication with the others people to share the human needs is very important. We know that without language, people can not interact with the others. By language, people can share their experiences, their feelings, and their needs to each other by spoken or written.
English as the one of language is very important in this world because it becomes an international language and as a global language which is learned by countries in this world to increase the prosperity of those country itself. It no doubt that English is certainly important for all people to learn it, all of people in this world and also Indonesia people have to learn it because we know that the famous and modern books of science, knowledge, international business, healthy are in English so people of Indonesia must master English to improve the quality of educational and the quality of progression in Indonesia itself.
Globalization era makes English must be taught in school. The Indonesia government curriculum has informed that all schools in Indonesia have to teach English. Additionally, English has to be mastered by students and it causes government of Indonesia makes English is not only a lesson which must be learnt by students of Indonesia but it is also as one of the subject in state examination in Indonesia.
The value of English as important lesson will be practical than theoretical. In practicing English are mentioned four skills which must be mastered by the students. The four skills of English as a language are listening, speaking, reading and writing. All of skills must be mastered by students because it becomes the standard competencies which have to be reached by students.
Speaking is the important one of four skills which has been mastered by the students. But in the teacher center learning, teacher does not emphasize in practicing speaking skill to his students. Ramelan (1991:22) states that the poor mastery of English speaking of students is result of the old ways of teaching which do not give stress to the mastery of spoken language. It means the poorness of students’ speaking ability becomes the problem of learning process in Indonesia because some teachers of Indonesia use the old ways to teach their students as like the old methods and the teachers do not use the good media in the teaching learning process. They just concern on the theory not on the practiced. Although improvement of speaking skill is the important problem, in fact only some teachers realize it.
It is also happened in the SMP IT AL ISLAM. Based on the small interview with students of SMP IT AL ISLAM the writer found that the practice of speaking in the teaching learning process is rarely to be done, it is caused English teacher of SMP IT AL ISLAM does not emphasize on the speaking practiced. It makes students are shy and afraid to speak. After observing the real situation for a week in the classroom teacher only emphasizes the way to answer the questions by using English Supplementary Material, there is rarely to practice in speaking English so students’ speaking ability is not good enough. There the technique which is usually used by English teacher is three phases technique and the media is realia. In SMP IT AL ISLAM, there is no new technique or method and good media to teach speaking ability for the students.
The other fact is the minimum value (KKM) which teacher expects the students’ speaking ability is 70 but some students in all grades cannot reach those score, and the lowest mean score is in seven grade level, it is only 65.65. This score has not reached the KKM of the school’s expectation yet. Because of that reasons, the writer would like to do her research in this school. In this research, the writer only concerns in the seventh grade students of SMP IT AL ISLAM. That is caused the lowest score is in seven grade students and the teacher feel difficult when she teaches the seven grade students. The teacher feels her students cannot be concentrated with the subject especially in English. When teacher teaches them, they play or talk with their friend and do not pay attention on their teacher.
Based on the pre-observation in SMP IT AL ISLAM above, the writer concludes that the characteristic of the seventh grade of SMP IT AL ISLAM students like playing, it can be seen when teacher are teaching in front of class students are busy to play with their friends. Actually, students can be attracted in teaching learning process if the teacher brings the good media. But in fact, realia as the media which is usually used by teacher cannot attract them in the teaching learning process, the students feel bored to study.
Based on those reasons above, the writer would like to use the media which is joy and fun for interacting students in studying. Language games are the one of suggestions for speaking media. Language game is known as a good media that students like because it is not only fun and joyful but also students can learn target language through language game. Playing games can grow up the fun learning activity naturally (Lewis and Bedson, 1999:5).
The writer found the game that can be played by some students of SMP IT AL ISLAM. They knew it and it is also familiar for them. That game is monopoly game. Monopoly game is not a language game, it is an economic game but the writer can modify it as language game. Monopoly game as the one of board game can be applied as the teaching media. As the statement of Lewis and Bedson (1999), a board game can be used as media in English teaching. So in this case, the writer wants to modify monopoly game into the language game and it may also be able to be used in English teaching, especially for teaching speaking in SMP IT AL ISLAM. This research is also supported by Chandra (2008). In the previous research, Chandra (2008) finds out that a board game is a useful technique in learning and developing speaking skill.
From all explanation above, the writer decides the title of research. The title of this research is “Teaching Speaking by Using Monopoly Game of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP IT AL ISLAM in Academic Year 2010/2011”.